Each of the Buddha’s thirty two excellent signs derives from karmic causes and conditions. For example, his crown protrusion:
(23) The top of his head has a crown-protrusion (gtsug-tor, Skt.ushnisha), made of radiant flesh, round and circling clockwise. When seen from a distance, it seems to be four finger-widths high, but upon closer scrutiny, its height can never be measured. This is the most difficult physical feature to achieve and is the result of his having always visualized his spiritual mentor on the crown of his head, as well as his having visited temples and monasteries and engaged in spiritual practices there.
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